Planning and Resource Allocation for Hard Real-time, Fault-Tolerant Plan Execution

Ella M. Atkins, Tarek F. Abdelzaher, Kang G. Shin, Edmund H. Durfee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We describe the interface between a real-time resource allocation system with an AI planner in order to create fault-tolerant plans that are guaranteed to execute in hard real-time. The planner specifies the task set and all execution deadlines required to ensure system safety, then the resource utilization. A new interface module combines information from planning and resource allocation to enforce development of plans feasible for execution during a variety of internal system faults. Plans that over-utilize any system resource trigger feedback to the planner, which then searches for an alternate plan. A valid plan for each specified fault, including the nominal no-fault situation, is stored in a plan cache for subsequent real-time execution. We situate this work in the context of CIRCA, the Cooperative Intelligent Real-time Control Architecture, which focuses on developing and scheduling plans that make hard real-time safety guarantees, and provide an example of an autonomous aircraft agent to illustrate how our planner-resource allocation interface improves CIRCA performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-78
Number of pages22
JournalAutonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • AI architectures
  • Fault-tolerance
  • Planning
  • Real-time scheduling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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