Explicit integrators for real-time propagation of time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are compared regarding their suitability for performing large-scale simulations. Four algorithms are implemented and assessed for both stability and accuracy within a plane-wave pseudopotential framework, employing the adiabatic approximation to the exchange-correlation functional. Simulation results for a single sodium atom and a sodium atom embedded in bulk magnesium oxide are discussed. While the first-order Euler scheme and the second-order finite-difference scheme are unstable, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme is found to be conditionally stable and accurate within this framework. Excellent parallel scalability of the algorithm up to more than a thousand processors is demonstrated for a system containing hundreds of electrons, evidencing the suitability for large-scale simulations based on real-time propagation of time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry