We assessed the cross-sectional associations between hormone replacement therapy (HRT), habitual physical activity levels and plasma lipoprotein-lipid levels in postmenopausal women. Sedentary (n = 19), active nonathlete (n = 20) and endurance-trained (n = 21) postmenopausal women, with half of each group on and half not on HRT, underwent assessments of plasma lipids, V̇O2max, body composition, diet and common genetic variants. The groups' physical characteristics were generally similar though body weight was higher in the active nonathletes, and body fat was lower and V̇O2max higher in the athletes. HRT was associated with beneficial total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in sedentary and active nonathlete women. Plasma lipoprotein-lipid profiles were similar in women athletes on and not on HRT, with their profiles being only slightly better than sedentary and physically-active women on HRT. After controlling for HRT status, V̇O2max was correlated with total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p = 0.0001), LDL-C (r = -0.52, p = 0.0001), HDL-C (r = 0.25, p = 0.055), HDL2-C (r = 0.24, p = 0.08) and TG levels (r = -0.46, p = 0.0001). After controlling for HRT status, % body fat was correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.43, p = 0.001), LDL-C (r = 0.38, p = 0.003), HDL-C (r = -0.29, p = 0.025), HDL2-C (r = -0,26, p = 0.07) and TG levels (r = 0.40, p = 0.002). Dietary fat intake was similar among the groups. APO E genotype was only associated with plasma lipid profiles in athletes, as those with at least one APO E2 allele tended to have better lipid profiles than those with only APO E3 or E4 alleles. Thus, HRT, exercise training and body composition are associated with plasma lipid levels in postmenopausal women; common polymorphic variations at key lipid metabolism-related gene loci also may interact with exercise training to affect their plasma lipid profiles.
- Body composition
- Cardiovascular disease risk
- Genetic markers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation