Phylogenetic analysis of the globally distributed arboreal leafhopper subfamily Eurymelinae was conducted based on DNA sequence data from three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes in addition to 86 discrete morphological characters. The analysis included 89 species representing 61 genera from all major biogeographic regions including six species from outgroups, Megophthalminae and Ulopinae. Trees resulting from partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of the combined data were well resolved and largely congruent, differing mainly in the relationships among the earliest diverging lineages. The results are consistent with an expanded concept of Eurymelinae, including tribes Austroagalloidini and Macropsini. Six monophyletic groups are recognized as new tribes, Balocerini, Chiasmodolini, Chileanoscopini, Idioceroidini, Kopamerrini and Nesocerini, tribe n., and the previously recognized tribes Eurymelini, Idiocerini and Megipocerini are redefined. A new synonym, Busonini Zhang & Li, 2015 syn.n. is proposed here for Megipocerini Isaev, 1988. Molecular divergence time estimates were calibrated using two fossil taxa and suggested that the earliest divergences occurred in the Lower Cretaceous and that most major lineages of this group arose during the Cretaceous. Reconstruction of ancestral areas revealed considerable continental-scale biogeographical structure. The place of origin of Eurymelinae is equivocal but major lineages arose in the Neotropical, Australian and Afrotropical regions. A key to tribes and a checklist of genera showing current tribal placements are provided.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science