Photo-Enhanced Room Temperature Magnetism and Two-Photon Effects in Manganese-Implanted Gallium Nitride p-i-n Structures

John A. Carlson, Fu Chen Hsiao, Andrey Mironov, P. Scott Carney, John M. Dallesasse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The insertion of manganese into GaN-based p-i-n epitaxial structures allows for a ferromagnetic phase to occur at room temperature that can be photo-enhanced and retained for >8 hours. GaN p-i-n LED structures are implanted with manganese to form a ferromagnetic phase and illuminated with resonant photons across the GaN bandgap. The magnetization after illumination is found to increase by 0.2~μ _B /Mn atom. Subsequent illumination below the GaN:Mn bandgap is found to remove the photo-enhancement of magnetism and fully demagnetize the material. The optically-driven process confirms that photon absorption drives hole-media induced ferromagnetic changes to the top layer in GaN:Mn structures. A modified p-i-n structure is designed that situates a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) beneath the magnetic layer for improvement of the hole injection effect. The mid-gap state formed by the implanted manganese in GaN:Mn is simulated for two-photon electromagnetic induced transparency that can control the absorption of the top layer and moderate the hole injection. The design of GaN:Mn p-i-n structures is explored for spin-photon mapping of states for long-term storage in memory systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7000112
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Magnetic semiconductors
  • electromagnetic induced transparency
  • gallium nitride
  • ion implantation
  • optical transducer
  • photogeneration
  • semiconductor defects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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