Amorphous selenium (a-Se) films deposited on rigid substrates can undergo photo-induced crystallization (PC) even at temperatures (T) well below the glass transition, Tg∼313 K. Substrate-generated shear strain is known to promote the PC process. In the present work, we explore the influence of different substrates (Si and glass), and different film-layer-substrate combinations, on the PC in a variety of a-Se films and film-structures. The intermediate layers (indium tin oxide and polyimide) are chosen to promote conductivity and/or to be a buffer against interface strain in structures of interest for digital imaging applications. The PC characteristics in these samples are evaluated and compared using optical microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, Raman mapping, and T-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Both the presence of a soft intermediate layer, and the thermal softening that occurs for T increasing through Tg, inhibit the tendency for the onset of PC. The extensive PC mapping results in the wide range of samples studied here, as well as the suppression of PC near Tg in this array of samples, strongly support the generality of this behavior. As a consequence, one may expect that the stability of a-Se films against PC can be enhanced by decreasing the rigidity of the film-substrate interface. In this regard, advanced film structures that employ flexible substrates, soft intermediate layers, and/or are designed to be operated near Tg should be explored.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)