Phosphorylation of AKT serine/threonine kinase and abundance of milk protein synthesis gene networks in mammary tissue in response to supply of methionine in periparturient Holstein cows

Y. F. Ma, F. Batistel, T. L. Xu, L. Q. Han, R. Bucktrout, Y. Liang, D. N. Coleman, C. Parys, J. J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The main objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing the supply of Met around parturition on abundance and phosphorylation of insulin- and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-related signaling proteins along with mRNA abundance of milk protein and fat synthesis-related genes in postpartal mammary tissue. A basal control diet (control) or the basal diet plus ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected Met (0.9 g/kg of dry matter intake; Mepron, Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany) were fed (n = 30 cows/diet) from d −28 to 60 relative to parturition. Mammary tissue and blood plasma were harvested from the same cows (n = 5/diet) in the control and Met groups at d 21 postpartum for mRNA, protein, and AA analysis. Increasing the supply of Met led to greater milk protein percentage and milk yield along with greater ratio of phosphorylated (p-)AKT to total AKT. The ratio of p-mTORC1 to total mTORC1 did not differ, but ratio of p-RPS6 to total ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) was lower in response to Met supply. These responses were associated with greater mRNA abundance of the signaling proteins Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Greater Met supply also upregulated mRNA abundance of high-affinity cationic (SLC7A1) and sodium-coupled AA transporters (SLC38A1, SLC38A2); leucyl-tRNA (LARS), valyl-tRNA (VARS), and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases (IARS); glucose transport solute carrier family 2 member 3 (SLC2A1); glucose transport solute carrier family 2 member 3 (SLC2A3); and casein α-s1 (CSN1S1). The mRNA abundance of components of the unfolded protein response, such as x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), were upregulated, and protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15A (PPP1R15A) was downregulated in response to greater Met supply. Overall, the data suggest that increased dry matter intake, greater phosphorylation status of AKT, upregulation of glucose and AA transporters, and transcripts of tRNases in response to enhanced Met supply might have compensated for a reduction in ribosome biogenesis due to a lower ratio of p-RPS6 to total RPS6. Together, these cellular responses constitute a mechanism whereby Met supply can regulate milk protein synthesis in early lactation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4264-4274
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume102
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2019

Keywords

  • amino acid
  • lactation
  • mammary gland
  • transition period

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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