Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary


Racial consciousness in the Philippines emerged out of a long history of colonialism. For four centuries, a succession of western empires established their hegemony over the country. The two longest rulers, Spain and the United States, imposed their systems of racial hierarchy, which encompassed economic, political, and cultural realms as well as daily encounters that reinforced racial oppressiveness. Racial consciousness became especially acute in the diaspora when colonized Filipino travelers to the colonial metropole experienced prejudice, discrimination, and violence firsthand. The stories of such encounters heightened anticolonial sentiment and led to campaigns for Philippine independence. Still, even after independence, the Philippines has failed to escape the legacy of colonial racial hierarchies. Moreover, as globalization has led to the extension of the Filipino diaspora on several continents, overseas Filipinos have faced new racial conditions, which have led to a heightening of racial consciousness.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism
EditorsJohn Stone, Dennis M Rutledge, Anthony D Smith, Polly S Rizova, Xiaoshuo Hou
ISBN (Electronic)9781118663202
StatePublished - 2015


  • colonialism
  • consciousness
  • diaspora
  • minorities
  • race


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