|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism|
|Editors||John Stone, Dennis M Rutledge, Anthony D Smith, Polly S Rizova, Xiaoshuo Hou|
|State||Published - 2015|
Racial consciousness in the Philippines emerged out of a long history of colonialism. For four centuries, a succession of western empires established their hegemony over the country. The two longest rulers, Spain and the United States, imposed their systems of racial hierarchy, which encompassed economic, political, and cultural realms as well as daily encounters that reinforced racial oppressiveness. Racial consciousness became especially acute in the diaspora when colonized Filipino travelers to the colonial metropole experienced prejudice, discrimination, and violence firsthand. The stories of such encounters heightened anticolonial sentiment and led to campaigns for Philippine independence. Still, even after independence, the Philippines has failed to escape the legacy of colonial racial hierarchies. Moreover, as globalization has led to the extension of the Filipino diaspora on several continents, overseas Filipinos have faced new racial conditions, which have led to a heightening of racial consciousness.