Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and subcutaneously implanted terbinafine in cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus)

L. P. Kane, M. C. Allender, G. Archer, K. Leister, M. Rzadkowska, K. Boers, M. Souza, S. Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single-dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization. Following a 5-month washout, the same snakes were administered a subcutaneous implant containing 24.5 mg terbinafine; blood was collected at baseline, 1 day postimplant placement, and then once weekly for 9 weeks. Plasma for both studies was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma concentrations of nebulized terbinafine peaked between 0.5 and 4 hr. The subcutaneously implanted terbinafine reached therapeutic concentrations on day 1 and maintained therapeutic for over 6 weeks. These methods and doses are recommended as potential treatment options for snake fungal disease in reptiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-579
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2017


  • Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • implant
  • nebulization
  • terbinafine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • General Veterinary


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