Pharmacokinetic profiles of three dose rates of morphine sulfate following single intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous administration in the goat

Emma Gordon, Levent Dirikolu, Chin Chi Liu, Alexander V. Ulanov, Zhong Li, Matt Welborn, Chance Armstrong, Danielle Vallotton, Sarah Keeton, Sarah Camlic, Clare M. Scully

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of morphine in goats following a single dose administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously at 0.1 mg/kg, 0.25 mg/kg, and 0.4 mg/kg. Study population included eight healthy adult goats in a randomized cross-over study. Serial plasma samples were collected and morphine was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data fit a two-compartment model following intravenous administration and a non-compartmental model following both intramuscular and subcutaneous administration. Plasma elimination half-life was 2.88 ± 1.13 h (0.1 mg/kg), 2.30 ± 0.49 h (0.25 mg/kg), and 2.67 ± 0.82 h (0.4 mg/kg) following IV morphine. Intramuscular Cmax values were 13.4 ± 2.77 ng/ml (0.1 mg/kg), 34 ± 11.50 ng/ml (0.25 mg/kg), and 68.9 ± 24.5 ng/ml (0.4 mg/kg). Intramuscular Tmax f(h) or IM dosing (in hrs) was 0.19 ± 0.14 (0.1 mg/kg), 0.24 ± 0.24 (0.25 mg/kg), and 0.21 ± 0.24 (0.4 mg/kg). Subcutaneous Cmax values were 9.88 ± 3.31 ng/ml (0.1 mg/kg), 28.5 ± 11.6 ng/ml (0.25 mg/kg), and 39.4 ± 14.3 ng/ml (0.4 mg/kg). Subcutaneous Tmax (h) values for SC dosing were 0.36 ± 0.21 (0.1 mg/kg), 0.31 ± 0.17 (0.25 mg/kg), and 0.4 ± 0.13 (0.4 mg/kg). Intramuscular bioavailability values were 153.77 ± 12.60% (0.4 mg/kg), 104.8 ± 25.12% (0.25 mg/kg), and 100.7 ± 29.57% (0.1 mg/kg). Subcutaneous bioavailability values were 130.58 ± 19.07% (0.4 mg/kg), 116.6 ± 27.03% (0.25 mg/kg), and 111.6 ± 23.24% (0.1 mg/kg). No adverse effects were observed. Assuming plasma concentration required to induce analgesia is 16 ± 9 ng/ml in goats, as demonstrated in humans, it is suggested to administer morphine intramuscularly at 0.4 mg/kg every 3–4 h or SC every 2–3 h. This is a speculative conclusion therefore further studies evaluating pharmacodynamics and plasma analgesic threshold in goats is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-116
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • analgesia
  • goat
  • morphine
  • pain
  • pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • veterinary(all)

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