Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1 and γ2 isoforms alter lipogenic gene networks in goat mammary epithelial cells to different extents

H. B. Shi, W. S. Zhao, J. Luo, D. W. Yao, Y. T. Sun, J. Li, H. P. Shi, J. J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In nonruminants, the alternative splicing of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) generates PPARG1 and PPARG2 isoforms. Although transcriptional control differences between isoforms have been reported in human adipose tissue, their roles in ruminant mammary cells are not well known. To assess which of these isoforms is more closely associated with the regulation of mammary lipogenic pathways, their tissue distribution was analyzed and the expression of key genes regulating lipogenic gene networks was measured after overexpression of the 2 isoforms in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). The expression of PPARG2 was markedly greater in adipose tissue, whereas PPARG1 is the main isoform in goat mammary tissue (ratio of PPARG1:. PPARG2 was close to 37:1). As was reported in previous work, PPARG1 upregulated the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG and the lipogenic genes FASN, ACACA, and SCD. Along with a tendency for greater expression of AGPAT6, DGAT1, and PLIN2, these data suggest that PPARG1 is the isoform controlling lipogenesis in mammary cells. Addition of the PPARG ligand rosiglitazone (ROSI) to GMEC overexpressing both isoforms upregulated the expression of LPL and CD36, which help control uptake of long-chain fatty acids into mammary cells. Other responses to ROSI addition to GMEC overexpressing PPARG1 and PPARG2 included upregulation of AGPAT6, DGAT1, INSIG1, SREBF1, and NR1H3. Although the data suggest that both PPARG1 and PPARG2 could affect mammary lipogenesis via control of gene expression when stimulated (e.g., by ROSI), the fact that PPARG1 is more abundant in mammary tissue and that its overexpression alone upregulated key lipogenic gene networks suggest that it is the more important isoform in goat mammary cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5437-5447
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume97
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2014

Keywords

  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Gene network
  • Lactation
  • Mammary gland
  • Nuclear receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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