Peripartal rumen-protected methionine supplementation to higher energy diets elicits positive effects on blood neutrophil gene networks, performance and liver lipid content in dairy cows

Cong Li, Fernanda Batistel, Johan Samir Osorio, James K. Drackley, Daniel Luchini, Juan J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Main objectives were to determine to what extent Smartamine M (SM) supplementation to a prepartal higher-energy diet could alter neutrophil (PMN) and liver tissue immunometabolic biomarkers, and whether those responses were comparable to those in cows fed a prepartal lower-energy diet (CON). Results: Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were fed CON (NEL=1.24 Mcal/kg DM) during d -50 to d -22 relative to calving. From d -21 to calving, cows were randomly assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, n=9; NEL=1.54 Mcal/kg DM), OVE plus SM (OVE+SM, n=10; SM=0.07 % of DM) or remained on CON (n=9). All cows received the same basal lactation diet (NEL=1.75 Mcal/kg DM). Supplementation of SM (OVE+SM) continued until 30 d postpartum. Liver biopsies were harvested at d -10, 7, and 21 relative to parturition. Blood PMN isolated at -10, 3, and 21 d relative to calving was used to evaluate gene expression. As expected, OVE increased liver lipid content postpartum; however, cows fed OVE+SM or CON had lower concentrations than OVE. Compared with OVE, cows in CON and OVE+SM had greater DMI postpartum and milk production. Furthermore, cows fed OVE+SM had the greatest milk protein and fat percentage and lowest milk SCC despite having intermediate PMN phagocytic capacity. Adaptations in PMN gene expression in OVE+SM cows associated with the lower SCC were gradual increases from -10 to 21 d in genes that facilitate migration into inflammatory sites (SELL, ITGAM), enzymes essential for reducing reactive oxygen metabolites (SOD1, SOD2), and a transcription factor(s) required for controlling PMN development (RXRA). The greater expression of TLR4 on d 3, key for activation of innate immunity due to inflammation, in OVE compared with CON cows suggests a more pronounced inflammatory state. Feeding OVE+SM dampened the upregulation of TLR4, despite the fact that these cows had similar expression of the pro-inflammatory genes NFKB1 and TNF as OVE. Cows in CON had lower overall expression of these inflammation-related genes and GSR, which generates reduced glutathione, an important cellular antioxidant. Conclusions: Although CON cows appeared to have a less stressful transition into lactation, SM supplementation was effective in alleviating negative effects of energy-overfeeding. As such, SM was beneficial in terms of production and appeared to boost the response of PMN in a way that improved overall cow health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18
JournalJournal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 9 2016

Keywords

  • Blood neutrophil
  • Gene expression
  • Methionine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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