Pedagogical Agents and Affect: Molding Positive Learning Interactions

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter explores the relationship between animated pedagogical agents and emotions that are associated with learning. The empirical status of pedagogical agents is reviewed, with the conclusion that, although the literature is murky, properly designed and deployed pedagogical agents have a small, but significant impact on learning. These findings are considered alongside emerging research that focuses on affective considerations, such as empathetic agents, the politeness effect, and social agency theory. It is suggested that the design and behaviors of pedagogical agents are important, not just their simple presence (or lack thereof). The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research on increasing nonverbal fidelity, uncovering links between communicative behaviors and emotions related to learning, and building more meaningful relationships over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEmotions, Technology, Design, and Learning
EditorsSharon Y Tettegah, Martin Gartmeier
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9780128018569
StatePublished - 2016

Publication series

NameEmotions and Technology


  • Animated pedagogical agents
  • Nonverbal behaviors
  • Conversational agents
  • Emotions and learning
  • Intelligent tutoring systems
  • Affective computing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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