Pea Protein Nanoemulsion Effectively Stabilizes Vitamin D in Food Products: A Potential Supplementation during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Yazan Akkam, Taha Rababah, Rui Costa, Ali Almajwal, Hao Feng, Juan E. Andrade Laborde, Mahmoud M. Abulmeaty, Suhail Razak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is a global issue which has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. Fortification of food staples with vitamin D provides a solution to alleviate this problem. This research explored the use of pea protein nanoemulsion (PPN) to improve the stability of vitamin D in various food products. PPN was created using a pH-shifting and ultrasonication combined method. The physicochemical properties were studied, including particle size, foaming ability, water holding capacity, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic contents. The fortification of several food formulations (non-fat cow milk, canned orange juice, orange juice powder, banana milk, and infant formula) with vitamin D–PPN was investigated and compared to raw untreated pea protein (UPP) regarding their color, viscosity, moisture content, chemical composition, vitamin D stability, antioxidant activity, and morphology. Finally, a sensory evaluation (quantitative descriptive analysis, and consumer testing) was conducted. The results show that PPN with a size of 21.8 nm protected the vitamin D in all tested products. PPN may serve as a potential carrier and stabilizer of vitamin D in food products with minimum effects on the taste and color. Hence, PPN may serve as a green and safe method for food fortification during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number887
JournalNanomaterials
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Food products
  • Nanoemulsion
  • Pea protein
  • Sensory evaluation
  • UV stability
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

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