Particle Image Velocimetry and Total Temperature Characterization of Arc-Heated Mach 4.5 Free Jet

Gyu Sub Lee, Jie Lim, Peter Sakkos, Isabella C. Gessman, Nozomu Kato, Branden Kirchner, Greg Elliott, Tonghun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted in the Arc-Heated Combustion Tunnel (ACT-II) on a high-enthalpy Mach 4.5 nozzle flow. The primary motivation for the current work is to establish the feasibility of PIV as a high-quality flow diagnostic technique in hypersonic arc-heated flows and produce a high-resolution hypersonic nozzle flow characterization, including nozzle free jet shear layer velocity profiles. Due to the uncertain nature of the gas composition in the flowfield of interest, PIV measurements of a supersonic wedge flow were used to couple the flow velocities to the oblique shock relations. This enabled a PIV-derived total temperature calculation that does not require a priori assumptions of the exact gas composition. A PIV expansion module was developed for this study, and proper seed sizing and material were selected for the present flow. An analysis of the seed particle response from the PIV measurements provided an initial validation of the seed performance while revealing potential issues with consistent seed sizing. These measurements and derived conditions represent a means of acquiring high-resolution velocimetry and temperature datasets that consider uncertainties in the experimental generation of hypersonic high-enthalpy flows.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1720-1730
Number of pages11
JournalAIAA journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2024


  • Enthalpy
  • Flow Visualization Techniques
  • Fluid Flow Properties
  • Hyper Sonic Wind Tunnels
  • Hypersonic Flows
  • Hypersonic Nozzle
  • Molecular Tagging Velocimetry
  • Oblique Shock Wave
  • Particle Image Velocimetry
  • Scramjet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Particle Image Velocimetry and Total Temperature Characterization of Arc-Heated Mach 4.5 Free Jet'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this