Pancosma Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium: All About Appetite Regulation: Effects of diet and gonadal steroids on appetite regulation and food intake of companion animals

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Abstract

The prominent incidence of overweight and obese pet animals not only results in higher morbidity and mortality, but also poses a threat for the quality of life, longevity, and well-being of dogs and cats. To date, strategies to prevent BW gain or to induce weight loss have had modest success in the pet population. In part, due to the complexity and the multifactorial nature of this disease, which involves pet-human interaction, environmental and dietary factors, and an intertwined metabolic process that still is not fully understood. As such, research methods to investigate the role of physiological hormones and dietary management on mechanisms related to the control of feelings of satiety and hunger in pet animals is warranted. Increasing interest exists in exploring gut chemosensing mechanisms, the crosstalk between metabolic-active tissues, and the interface between the gut microbiota and the nervous system (gut-brain axis). The noninvasive nature of research conducted in companion animals focuses on systemic approaches to develop environmental, nutritional, or therapeutic interventions that can be translated from research settings to pet-owned households. Because the majority of the pet population is spayed or neutered, it is important to determine the effect that sex hormones might have on appetite regulation and fasting metabolic rate of these animals. In general, studies have revealed that gonadectomy may establish a new "set point" characterized by increased food intake and BW, accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes. Some studies have also shown associations between gonadectomy and alterations in appetite-related hormones (e.g., ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Manipulation of macronutrients in diets of dogs and cats have also been investigated as a mean to improve satiety. Most of the research in this area has focused on high-protein diets, predominantly, for cats, and the use of dietary fiber sources of contrasting fermentability and viscosity profiles. Dietary fibers may affect the production of fermentative end products and gut microbiome, digestive and absorptive processes, appetite-related hormones, and promote "gut fill" and satiety. More recent studies have reported profound effects of dietary manipulation on the phylogeny and functional capacity of gut microbial communities of dogs and cats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3526-3536
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume96
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

Keywords

  • Cat
  • Dog
  • Gonadectomy
  • Hormone regulation
  • Obesity
  • Satiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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