Overview of Formative, Process, and Outcome Evaluation Methods Used in the VERB Campaign

Judy M. Berkowitz, Marian Huhman, Carrie D. Heitzler, Lance D. Potter, Mary Jo Nolin, Stephen W. Banspach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: Evaluation was an integral part of the VERB campaign. This paper describes the array of evaluation methods used to support the development, implementation, and assessment of campaign activities. The evaluation of VERB consisted of formative, process, and outcome evaluations and involved both qualitative and quantitative methods. Formative evaluation allowed staff to test ideas for messages and to gauge their appropriateness for the intended audiences. Process evaluation allowed staff to test and monitor the fidelity of the campaign's implementation to objectives and to make changes while the campaign was under way. Outcome evaluation allowed staff to determine the campaign's effects on the target audience. Because a comprehensive approach was used, which included formative and process evaluation, the VERB team's ability to interpret the results of the outcome evaluation was enhanced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S222-S229
JournalAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine
Issue number6 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Jun 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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