Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows

P. Ji, J. K. Drackley, M. J. Khan, J. J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NEL)=1.35Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NEL=1.62Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine AT. Overfeeding energy also may predispose cows to greater lipolytic potential by stimulating expression of TAG hydrolysis genes while inhibiting signaling via hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1), which is a novel antilipolytic regulator. Our results do not support an overt inflammatory response in adipose tissues in response to an 8-wk energy overfeeding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3431-3440
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume97
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Keywords

  • Adipose gene expression
  • Energy
  • Lipogenesis
  • Lipolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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