Osteoprotegerin-eluting nanoparticulate mineralized collagen scaffolds improve skull regeneration

Xiaoyan Ren, Dillon Dejam, Michelle K. Oberoi, Natalie J. Dahan, Qi Zhou, Kelly X. Huang, Meiwand Bedar, Candace H. Chan, Vasiliki Kolliopoulos, Marley J. Dewey, Brendan A.C. Harley, Justine C. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Custom synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM)-inspired materials for condition-specific reconstruction has emerged as a potentially translatable regenerative strategy. In skull defect reconstruction, nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (MC-GAG) have demonstrated osteogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic properties, culminating in the ability to partially heal in vivo skull defects without the addition of exogenous growth factors or progenitor cell loading. In an effort to reduce catabolism during early skull regeneration, we fabricated a composite material (MCGO) of MC-GAG and recombinant osteoprotegerin (OPG), an endogenous anti-osteoclastogenic decoy receptor. In the presence of differentiating osteoprogenitors, MCGO demonstrated an additive effect with endogenous OPG limited to the first 14 days of culture with total eluted and scaffold-bound OPG exceeding that of MC-GAG. Functionally, MCGO exhibited similar osteogenic properties as MC-GAG, however, MCGO significantly reduced maturation and resorptive activities of primary human osteoclasts. In a rabbit skull defect model, MCGO scaffold-reconstructed defects displayed higher mineralization as well as increased hardness and microfracture resistance compared to non-OPG functionalized MC-GAG scaffolds. The current work suggests that MCGO is a development in the goal of reaching a materials-based strategy for skull regeneration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number213262
JournalBiomaterials Advances
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Extracellular matrix-inspired material
  • Nano particulate collagen glycosaminoglycan
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • Regeneration
  • Scaffold
  • Skull reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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