In a manner reminiscent of macroscale bending and folding techniques such as origami, the out-of-plane assembly of lithographically micro- and nanopatterned thin films, can be used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanostructured devices. These 3D devices, including microelectronic circuits, sensors, antennas, metamaterials, robotic, and biomimetic constructs, enable new functionalities and are challenging to fabricate by other methods. In this article, we summarize important features of this set of techniques and the devices assembled thereof, with a focus on functional constructs that have been formed by bending, folding, or buckling. At small size scales, manipulation using manual or even wired probes face daunting practical challenges in terms of cost, scalability, and high-throughput manufacturability; hence we emphasize techniques that manipulate strain in thin films so that they can spontaneously assemble into programmed 3D geometries without the need for any wires or probes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry