Order and disorder in gauge systems and magnets

Eduardo Fradkin, Leonard Susskind

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We show how phase transitions in Abelian two-dimensional spin and four-dimensional gauge systems can be understood in terms of condensation of topological objects. In the spin systems these objects are kinks and in the gauge systems either magnetic monopoles or fluxoids (quantized lines of magnetic flux). Four models are studied: two-dimensional Ising and XY models and four-dimensional Z2 and U(1) gauge systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2637-2658
Number of pages22
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1978
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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