Orbital Angular Momentum Modes from VCSELs Using Grayscale Photolithography

Raman Kumar, Pawel Strzebonski, Katherine Lakomy, Kent D. Choquette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present fabrication of dielectric micro-optical elements on VCSELs and characterization of emitted orbital angular momentum modes. Spiral phase plates are fabricated on the top facet of oxide-confined VCSELs using grayscale photolithography and dry etching silicon nitride. The refractive index of silicon nitride film is characterized using ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy is used to verify the fidelity of fabricated dielectric micro-optical elements. Orbital angular momentum modes with on-axis null are experimentally demonstrated. A novel circular rotation of intensity with propagation in the near-field is observed and is analyzed using Fresnel transfer function simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9416409
Pages (from-to)824-827
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 15 2021


  • Orbital angular momentum modes
  • VCSELs
  • grayscale photolithography
  • integrated spiral phase plates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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