Orai calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1) plays a role in endoplasmic reticulum stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells challenged with physiological levels of ketone bodies

Bingbing Zhang, Ming Li, Wei Yang, Juan J. Loor, Shuang Wang, Yingying Zhao, Han Guo, Xinru Ma, Cheng Xia, Chuang Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The Orai calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1) is a key component of the store-operated Ca2+ entry mechanism regulating cellular Ca2+ balance in nonruminants. Alterations in ORAI1 abundance have been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and changes in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, an important lipogenic organ in nonruminants. Objectives were to (1) determine abundance of ORAI1 and components of the ER stress response in mammary tissue of ketotic cows, and (2) the potential role of ORAI1 on mammary cell responses to high levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Healthy (n = 6, plasma BHB < 0.60 mmol/L) and clinically ketotic (n = 6, plasma BHB > 2.0 mmol/L) Holstein cows (days in milk = 10.13 ± 1.90) were used for mammary gland tissue and blood sample collection. Although milk production (22.5 ± 1.26, 33 ± 1.59, kg of milk/cow per day) and dry matter intake (19.5 ± 1.05, 21.9 ± 0.95, kg/d) were lower in ketotic cows, abundance of ORAI1 protein was greater and was associated with greater mRNA abundance of ER stress proteins (PERK, IRE1, ATF6, and GRP78) and lipogenic genes (FASN, SREBP1, and ACACA). Cellular mechanisms to establish links between BHB and mammary cell responses were evaluated using the immortalized cell line bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T). First, a dose response study was performed with 0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, or 4.8 mM BHB for 24 h. The mRNA abundance of FASN, SREBP1, and ACACA and lipid droplet formation peaked at 1.2 mM BHB. A subsequent study involved transfecting MAC-T with small interfering Orai 1 (siORAI1) or the ORAI1 inhibitor BTP2 for 24 h followed by a challenge with 1.2 mM BHB for 24 h. Transcription and protein abundance of FASN, SREBP1, ACACA, and ER stress proteins returned to basal levels when ORAI1 was silenced or inhibited. Furthermore, the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (raises the intracellular level of Ca2+) also increased abundance of ORAI1, FASN, SREBP1, ACACA, and ER stress proteins. Data suggest that the mammary gland experiences ER stress during ketosis, partly due to the greater supply of BHB originating from ketogenesis in the liver. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling and ORAI1 seem to mediate in part the BHB-induced ER stress in mammary cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • Ca signaling
  • dairy cow
  • lactation
  • stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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