Optimization of linkage mapping strategy and construction of a high-density American lotus linkage map

Qiong Zhang, Leiting Li, Robert VanBuren, Yanling Liu, Mei Yang, Liming Xu, John E. Bowers, Caihong Zhong, Yuepeng Han, Shaohua Li, Ray Ming

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Lotus is a diploid plant with agricultural, medicinal, and ecological significance. Genetic linkage maps are fundamental resources for genome and genetic study, and also provide molecular markers for breeding in agriculturally important species. Genotyping by sequencing revolutionized genetic mapping, the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) allowed rapid discovery of thousands of SNPs markers, and a crucial aspect of the sequence based mapping strategy is the reference sequences used for marker identification.Results: We assessed the effectiveness of linkage mapping using three types of references for scoring markers: the unmasked genome, repeat masked genome, and gene models. Overall, the repeat masked genome produced the optimal genetic maps. A high-density genetic map of American lotus was constructed using an F1 population derived from a cross between Nelumbo nucifera 'China Antique' and N. lutea 'AL1'. A total of 4,098 RADseq markers were used to construct the American lotus 'AL1' genetic map, and 147 markers were used to construct the Chinese lotus 'China Antique' genetic map. The American lotus map has 9 linkage groups, and spans 494.3 cM, with an average distance of 0.7 cM between adjacent markers. The American lotus map was used to anchor scaffold sequences in the N. nucifera 'China Antique' draft genome. 3,603 RADseq markers anchored 234 individual scaffold sequences into 9 megascaffolds spanning 67% of the 804 Mb draft genome.Conclusions: Among the unmasked genome, repeat masked genome and gene models, the optimal reference sequences to call RADseq markers for map construction is repeat masked genome. This high density genetic map is a valuable resource for genomic research and crop improvement in lotus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number372
JournalBMC genomics
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 15 2014


  • Chinese lotus
  • Genome assembly
  • Genotyping by sequencing
  • Megascaffold
  • Restriction associated sequencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Genetics


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