Optimal riser design for metal castings

T. E. Morthland, P. E. Byrne, D. A. Tortorelli, J. A. Dantzig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The optimal design of a casting rigging system is considered. The casting geometry is systematically modified to minimize the gate and riser volume, while simultaneously ensuring that no porosity appears in the product. In this approach, we combine finite-element analysis of the solidification heat-transfer process with design sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization to systematically improve the casting design. Methods are presented for performing the sensitivity analysis, including the sensitivity of important solidification parameters such as freezing time, temperature gradient, and cooling rate. We also present methods for performing Newton-Raphson iteration for solidification models that use the boundary-curvature method to represent the sand mold. Finally, the methods are applied to design risers for an L-shaped steel plate to control microporosity and for a steel hammer to control macroporosity. It is demonstrated that the size of a conventionally designed riser can be reduced by a significant amount while retaining the quality of the cast product.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)871-885
Number of pages15
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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