Optimal ratios of essential amino acids stimulate β-casein synthesis via activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in MAC-T cells and bovine mammary tissue explants

S. S. Li, J. J. Loor, H. Y. Liu, L. Liu, A. Hosseini, W. S. Zhao, J. X. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and serve as key molecular components upstream of the signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of essential AA ratios on milk protein synthesis in vitro and to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms. Triplicate cultures of MAC-T cells and bovine mammary tissue explants (MTE) were incubated with the optimal AA ratio (OPAA; Lys:Met, 2.9:1; Thr:Phe, 1.05:1; Lys:Thr, 1.8:1; Lys:His, 2.38:1; and Lys:Val, 1.23:1) in the presence of rapamycin (control), OPAA, a Lys:Thr ratio of 2.1:1, a Lys:Thr ratio of 1.3:1, a Lys:His ratio of 3.05:1, or a Lys:Val ratio of 1.62:1 for 12 h; the other AA concentrations were equal to OPAA. In some experiments, the cells were cultured with OPAA with or without rapamycin (100 ng/mL) or with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) small interference RNA, and the MTE were exposed to OPAA with rapamycin for β-casein expression. Among the treatments, the expression of β-casein was greatest in the MTE cultured with OPAA. In MAC-T cells, the OPAA upregulated the mRNA expression of SLC1A5 and SLC7A5 but downregulated the expression of IRS1, AKT3, EEF1A1, and EEF2 compared with the control. The OPAA had no effect on the mTOR phosphorylation status but increased the phosphorylation of S6K1 and RPS6. When the MTE were treated with rapamycin in the presence of OPAA, the expression of β-casein was markedly decreased. The phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1 also was reduced in MAC-T cells. A similar negative effect on the expression of RPS6KB1 and EIF4EBP1 was detected when the cells were cultured with either rapamycin or mTOR small interference RNA. The optimal AA ratio stimulated β-casein expression partly by enhancing the transport of AA into the cells, cross-talk with insulin signaling and a subsequent enhancement of mTOR signaling, or translation elongation in both MAC-T cells and bovine MTE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6676-6688
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume100
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2017

Keywords

  • MAC-T cell
  • bovine mammary tissue explant
  • mammalian target of rapamycin
  • milk protein synthesis
  • signaling protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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