Optimal control of rapid thermal annealing in a semiconductor process

R. Gunawan, M. Y.L. Jung, E. G. Seebauer, R. D. Braatz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study focuses on the optimal control of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) used in the formation of ultrashallow junctions needed in next-generation microelectronic devices. Comparison of different parameterizations of the optimal trajectories shows that linear profiles give the best combination of minimizing junction depth and sheet resistance. Worst-case robustness analysis of the optimal control trajectory motivates improvements in feedback control implementations for these processes. This is the first time that the effects of model uncertainties and control implementation inaccuracies are rigorously quantified for RTA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)423-430
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Process Control
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2004


  • Batch control
  • Microelectronics processes
  • Optimal control
  • Rapid thermal annealing
  • Robustness analysis
  • Semiconductor processing
  • Uncertainty analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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