Optical Transitions and Magnetism in Mn-Implanted Gallium Nitride for Three-Level Magnetooptic Devices

John A. Carlson, Maanav Ganjoo, John M. Dallesasse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A method of preparing passive materials suitable for magnetooptic interactions is shown using manganese implantation into gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers, which establishes both dilute ferromagnetism and a three-level optical system with persistence to over 300 K. A sweep of thermal anneal parameters for a high implant dose into Mg-doped p-type GaN films is presented, and the materials are tested for both their magnetization and photoluminescence (PL). The optimal anneal process at 825 °C for 5 min maintains ferromagnetism with TC>305 K, confirming magnetic alignment at room temperature with a coercivity of 100 Oe. PL and spectrophotometry of the optimally prepared materials show the effects of the mid-gap defect state on the material's optical characteristics. The anneal process returns the real part index to its baseline dispersion while retaining an onset of absorption starting at the defect level EA =1.8 eV, signifying a stable mid-gap energy transition with a measured state lifetime of τ PL =2.7 ns. The scalability of this process for producing three-level transition magnetic materials suggests passive optical or magnetooptic devices can be constructed that interconnect photonic and spintronic effects for emerging system designs and potential applications in quantum information.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-230
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Annealing
  • Gallium nitride
  • Gallium nitride (GaN)
  • Implants
  • ion implantation
  • Magnetic hysteresis
  • magnetic semiconductors
  • Magnetization
  • magnetooptic devices
  • Manganese
  • quantum information
  • Temperature measurement
  • wide-bandgap semiconductors.
  • Ion implantation
  • Magnetooptic devices
  • Magnetic semiconductors
  • Wide-bandgap semiconductors
  • Quantum information

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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