Optical remote sensing to quantify fugitive particulate mass emissions from stationary short-term and mobile continuous sources: Part II. Field applications

Ke Du, Wangki Yuen, Wei Wang, Mark J. Rood, Ravi M. Varma, Ram A. Hashmonay, Byung J. Kim, Michael R. Kemme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Quantification of emissions of fugitive particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere from military training operations is of interest by the United States Department of Defense. A new range-resolved optical remote sensing (ORS) method was developed to quantify fugitive PM emissions from puff sources (i.e., artillery back blasts), ground-level mobile sources (i.e., movement of tracked vehicles), and elevated mobile sources (i.e., airborne helicopters) in desert areas that are prone to generating fugitive dust plumes. Real-time, in situ mass concentration profiles for PM mass with particle diameters <10 μm (PM10) and <2.5 μm (PM2.5) were obtained across the dust plumes that were generated by these activities with this new method. Back blasts caused during artillery firing were characterized as a stationary short-term puff source whose plumes typically dispersed to <10 m above the ground with durations of 10-30 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by artillery back blasts were related to the zone charge and ranged from 51 to 463 g PM/firing for PM10 and 9 to 176 g PM/firing for PM2.5. Movement of tracked vehicles and flying helicopters was characterized as mobile continuous sources whose plumes typically dispersed 30-50 m above the ground with durations of 100-200 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by moving tracked vehicles ranged from 8.3 to 72.5 kg PM/km for PM10 and 1.1 to 17.2 kg PM/km for PM2.5, and there was no obvious correlation between PM emission and vehicle speed. The emission factor for the helicopter flying at 3 m above the ground ranged from 14.5 to 114.1 kg PM/km for PM10 and 5.0 to 39.5 kg PM/km for PM2.5, depending on the velocity of the helicopter and type of soil it flies over. Fugitive PM emissions by an airborne helicopter were correlated with helicopter speed for a particular soil type. The results from this range-resolved ORS method were also compared with the data obtained with another path-integrated ORS method and a Flux Tower method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-672
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume45
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

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