Moving puncture coordinates are commonly used in numerical simulations of black holes. Their properties for vacuum Schwarzschild black holes have been analyzed in a number of studies. The behavior of moving-puncture coordinates in spacetimes containing matter, however, is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the behavior of these coordinates for OppenheimerSnyder collapse, i.e. the collapse of a uniform density, pressureless sphere of dust initially at rest to a black hole. OppenheimerSnyder collapse provides a stringent test of the singularity-avoiding properties of moving-puncture coordinates, since the singularity can form more quickly than it would for matter with pressure. Our results include analytical expressions for the matter density, lapse function and mean curvature at early times, as well as interesting limits for later times. We also carry out numerical simulations to obtain the full solution and these show that even in the absence of pressure, moving-puncture coordinates are able to avoid the singularity. At late times, the geometry settles down to a trumpet slice of a vacuum black hole.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)