Online and blended instruction in K-12 physical education: A scoping review

Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, Amelia Mays Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods in the K-12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for improved learning opportunities in physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K-12 physical education. Method: PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed this review, and 5 databases were searched for English-language articles. Results: Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary-school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles is largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Conclusions: Systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-129
Number of pages20
JournalKinesiology Review
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2019


  • Flipped instruction
  • Hybrid learning
  • Online physical education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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