On the Fire Hose Kickback Force in Solid Water Streams

Dac Nguyen, Richard M. Kesler, Shyuan Cheng, Leonardo P. Chamorro, Samuel Vega, Aaron Fields, Dennis LeGear, Farzaneh Masoud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the kickback force (FK) experienced by firefighters during fire suppression using hoses of varying diameters and different nozzle sizes. Rigorous ground tests were conducted, where a fire engine was employed to propel water through a 200 ft hose line, simulating real-life firefighting scenarios while using the hip grip and clamp techniques for hose advancement. Two distinct hose sizes, 13/4 and 21/2 in., were employed with solid stream nozzles of varying diameters, facilitating the examination of kickback forces at different attacking angles. The findings substantiate that the FK exhibits variability in response to changes in the attacking angle when utilizing the clamp technique, which encompasses angles of 45°, 30°, and 15°. The 45° angle exhibits the lowest force, while the 30° angle manifests the highest force, demonstrating a notable discrepancy of up to 25% compared to the 45° scenario. The FK observed at the 15° angle for the clamp technique closely approximates the corresponding values derived from the hip grip hose advancement method. The results also underscore the necessity of regarding the NFPA nozzle reaction force as an integral component of the all-encompassing FK experienced by firefighters during hose line operations. The NFPA nozzle reaction force resulted significantly below the actual FK observed in all tested experiments, displaying the most substantial difference of 50% in the case of the 30° angle utilizing the clamp technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalFire Technology
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Fire stream
  • Firefighter
  • Firefighting hose line
  • Firefighting nozzle
  • Hose line kickback force
  • Nozzle reaction
  • Reaction force

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


Dive into the research topics of 'On the Fire Hose Kickback Force in Solid Water Streams'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this