On the diffuse X-ray emission from the wolf-rayet bubble NGC 2359

J. A. Toalá, M. A. Guerrero, Y. H. Chu, R. A. Gruendl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A recent XMM-Newton observation has revealed diffuse X-ray emission inside the nebula NGC 2359 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 7. Taking advantage of an improved point-source rejection and background subtraction, and a detailed comparison of optical and X-ray morphology, we have reanalysed these X-ray observations. Our analysis reveals diffuse X-ray emission from a blowout and the presence of emission at energies from 1.0 to 2.0 keV. The X-ray emission from NGC 2359 can be described by an optically thin plasma emission model, but contrary to previous analysis, we find that the chemical abundances of this plasma are similar to those of the optical nebula, with no magnesium enhancement, and that two components at temperatures T1 = 2 × 106 K and T2 = 5.7 × 107 K are required. The estimated X-ray luminosity in the 0.3-2.0 keV energy range is LX = 2 × 1033 erg s-1. The averaged rms electron density of the X-ray-emitting gas (ne ≲ 0.6 cm-3) reinforces the idea of mixing of material from the outer nebula into the hot bubble.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1083-1089
Number of pages7
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • ISM: bubbles
  • ISM: individual objects: NGC 2359
  • Stars: Wolf-Rayet
  • X-rays: individual: NGC 2359

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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