On contextuality in behavioural data

Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov, Janne V. Kujala, Víctor H. Cervantes, Ru Zhang, Matt Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dzhafarov et al. (Dzhafarov et al. 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150099. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0099)) reviewed several behavioural datasets imitating the formal design of the quantum-mechanical contextuality experiments. The conclusion was that none of these datasets exhibited contextuality if understood in the generalized sense proposed by Dzhafarov et al. (2015 Found. Phys. 7, 762-782. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9882-9)), while the traditional definition of contextuality does not apply to these data because they violate the condition of consistent connectedness (also known as marginal selectivity, no-signalling condition, no-disturbance principle, etc.). In this paper, we clarify the relationship between (in)consistent connectedness and (non)contextuality, as well as between the traditional and extended definitions of (non)contextuality, using as an example the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequalities originally designed for detecting contextuality in entangled particles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20150234
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2068
StatePublished - May 28 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Consistent connectedness
  • Contextuality
  • Cyclic systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Mathematics
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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