On achievable error exponents for watermarking

Pierre Moulin, Ying Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Probability-of-error exponents have recently been derived for watermarking systems based on spread-spectrum and quantization-index modulation methods. This paper takes this work one step further and presents minmax error exponents for any embedding scheme and any attack (subject to distortion constraints) at all rates below capacity. The decoders used are universal: they do not know the attack used. Randomized codes outperform deterministic codes, except in the case of memoryless attacks where the same performance is obtained using either kind of code.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number31
Pages (from-to)308-317
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2005
EventProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 17 2005Jan 20 2005


  • Coding
  • Game theory
  • Probability of error
  • Randomized codes
  • Universal decoding
  • Watermarking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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