The ocular lesions of bovine malignant catarrhal fever were characterized in 15 naturally occurring and eight experimentally induced cases of the disease. Consistent findings included: lymphocytic vasculitis of retinal, scleral, posterior ciliary, and uveal vessels; uveitis, especially involving ciliary processes, ciliary body, and iris; and keratitis with corneal edema, neovascularization, and epithelial and endothelial degeneration. Lymphocytic ciliary neuritis and optic meningitis were found less frequently. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body and iris from one experimental calf confirmed that most infiltrating mononuclear cells were lymphocytes. The uveitis, vasculitis, and keratitis of malignant catarrhal fever were probably immune-mediated.
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