Numerical study of steady turbulent flow through bifurcated nozzles in continuous casting

Fady M. Najjar, Brian G. Thomas, Donald E. Hershey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bifurcated nozzles are used in continuous casting of molten steel, where they influence the quality of the cast steel slabs. The present study performs two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of steady turbulent (K- ε) flow in bifurcated nozzles, using a finite-element (FIDAP) model, which has been verified previously with water model experiments. The effects of nozzle design and casting process operating variables on the jet characteristics exiting the nozzle are investigated. The nozzle design parameters studied include the shape, angle, height, width, and thickness of the ports and the bottom geometry. The process operating practices include inlet velocity profile and angle as well as port curvature caused by erosion or inclusion buildup. Results show that the jet angle is controlled mainly by the port angle but is steeper with larger port area and thinner walls. The degree of swirl is increased by larger or rounder ports. The effective port area, where there is no recirculation, is increased by smaller or curved ports. Flow asymmetry is more severe with skewed or angled inlet conditions or unequal port sizes. Turbulence levels in the jet are higher with higher casting speed and smaller ports.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)749-765
Number of pages17
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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