The complete nucleotide sequence of the Bean leafroll virus (BLRV) genomic RNA and the termini of its smallest subgenomic RNAs were determined to better understand its mechanisms of gene expression and replication and its phylogenetic position within the Luteoviridae. The number and placement of open reading frames (ORFs) within the BLRV genome was Luteovirus-like. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of BLRV were most similar to those of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV). Phylogenetic analyses employing the neighbour-joining method and sister-scanning analysis indicated that the BLRV nonstructural proteins were closely related to those of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), a Luteovirus. The region surrounding the frameshift at the junction between ORFs 1 and 2 also contained sequences very similar to those of BYDV-PAV and a Dianthovirus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus. Similar analyses showed that the structural proteins were most similar to those of the Polerovirus genus. The 3′-noncoding regions downstream of ORF5 contained sequences similar to translational control elements identified in the BYDV-PAV genome. These data suggest that BLRV, like SbDV, is derived either through selection from a common ancestor with BYDV-PAV or that BLRV is the product of two recombination events between luteovirus-like and polerovirus-like ancestors where the 5′ 2900 nt and 3′ 700 nt of the BLRV genome are from a Luteovirus and the intervening sequences are derived from a Polerovirus.
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