Morbidity and mortality rates associated with substance use disorder (SUD) are climbing. To address this crisis, extant interventions must be optimized to increase treatment initiation and engagement, as well as decrease relapse rates. Difficulties associated with SUD intervention include treatment accessibility, inconsistent evidentiary support for existing protocols across varied populations, and heterogeneous definitions of SUD recovery. This chapter reviews existing treatments for SUD and recent advances in the field, while also providing recommendations for future research. Novel developments in communication technology have introduced a variety of possibilities to advance SUD treatments, including remote and technology-based interventions, recovery-oriented mobile applications, and just-in-time adaptive interventions. Integrating these technologies into SUD treatment may decrease financial burden and perceived stigma among patients and families. Knowledge of the neurobiological bases of addiction has also increased in recent years, giving rise to treatment programs that target specific neural processes that underlie SUD. Finally, interventions with high efficacy, such as social network-integrated treatment programs, face accessibility barriers that may be reduced by the integration of novel technologies. Future research should prioritize mechanistic examinations of SUD interventions, as well as increased racial, gender and sexual diversity among study populations.