Norflurazon and metribuzin as components of postemergence tank mixtures with HPPD-inhibiting herbicides for multiple-resistant waterhemp control

Kip E. Jacobs, Seth A. Strom, Carrie J. Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Dean E. Riechers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Field and greenhouse studies investigated the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides, norflurazon and metribuzin, as components of two- and three-way postemergence (POST) tank mixtures for controlling multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus). Studies were conducted at two locations (Champaign County, Illinois, U.S.A (CHR) and McLean County, Illinois, U.S.A. (MCR)) during 2019 and 2020. One of three commercial HPPD-inhibiting herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione or topramezone) was added to a tank mixture with norflurazon, a reduced rate of metribuzin, or both to determine if greater MHR waterhemp control with tank mixtures could be achieved compared to individual herbicides and assess the potential benefit of norflurazon. Field results indicated the addition of norflurazon to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides resulted in greater waterhemp control (14% increase on average) compared to individual herbicides applied alone. Additionally, metribuzin in combination with HPPD-inhibiting herbicides consistently increased control of MHR waterhemp populations compared to the herbicides applied alone. However, only the three-way tank mixture containing tembotrione at the MCR site reduced biomass relative to two-way treatments containing tembotrione, metribuzin or norflurazon. Greenhouse experiments characterized mixtures of norflurazon with metribuzin and the HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, mesotrione and topramezone. Waterhemp biomass was significantly reduced when metribuzin and HPPD inhibitors were combined in comparison to individual components. Two-way tank mixtures containing norflurazon with mesotrione or metribuzin also resulted in significant biomass reductions compared to herbicides applied alone in MHR waterhemp. However, lower control levels were noted in MHR waterhemp when norflurazon was mixed with either topramezone or topramezone plus metribuzin compared to topramezone alone. In summary, norflurazon and metribuzin can be effective tank mixture components with HPPD-inhibiting herbicides for MHR waterhemp control. However, more research on these tank mixtures is warranted to optimize weed control and crop selectivity, which includes investigating active ingredient ratios, application timings and droplet spectrum effects on coverage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106361
JournalCrop Protection
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Dioecious amaranthus
  • Herbicide interactions
  • Multiple herbicide resistance
  • Tank mixtures
  • Weed control
  • Weed resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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