## Abstract

It is shown that the quadrature derivatives in some analytical gradients of energies evaluated with a multi-centre radial-angular grid do not vanish even in the limit of an infinitely dense grid, causing severe errors when neglected. The gradients in question are those with respect to a lattice constant of a crystal or to the helical angle of a chain with screw-axis symmetry. This is in contrast with the quadrature derivatives in atomic gradients, which can be made arbitrarily small by grid extension. The disparate behaviour is traced to whether the grid points depend on the coordinate with respect to which the derivative of energy is taken. Whereas the nonvanishing quadrature derivative in the lattice-constant gradient is identified as the surface integral arising from an expanding integration domain, the analytical origin of the nonvanishing quadrature derivative in the helical-angle gradient remains unknown.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | e2086500 |

Journal | Molecular Physics |

Volume | 121 |

Issue number | 9-10 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2023 |

## Keywords

- Density functional theory
- analytical gradients
- crystals
- helical polymers
- quadrature

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Biophysics
- Molecular Biology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry