The instructive capabilities of extracellular matrix components in progenitor cell differentiation have recently generated significant interest in the development of bioinspired materials for regenerative applications. Previously, a correlation was described between the osteogenic capabilities of nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (MC-GAG) and an autogenous activation of small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad1/5) in the canonical bone morpho-genetic protein receptor (BMPR) pathway with a diminished extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation when compared to nonmineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (Col-GAG). This work utilizes a canonical BMPR inhibitor (dorsomorphin homologue 1, DMH1) and an inhibitor of the mitogen activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/(ERK) cascade (PD98059) to characterize the necessity of each pathway for osteogenesis. While DMH1 inhibits runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and bone sialoprotein II (BSPII) gene expression of primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on MC-GAG, PD98059 inhibits BSPII expression on Col-GAG independent of Runx2 expression. DMH1 inhibits mineralization on both Col-GAG and MC-GAG, however, PD98059 only inhibits mineralization on Col-GAG. DMH1 inhibits both Smad1/5 phosphorylation and Runx2 protein expression, whereas PD98059 inhibits ERK1/2 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) phosphorylation without affecting Runx2. Thus, activation of the canonical BMPR signaling is necessary for osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hMSCs on Col-GAG or MC-GAG. The MEK/ERK cascade, intimately tied to JNK activation, is necessary for Runx2-independent osteogenesis on Col-GAG, while completely dispensable in osteogenesis on MC-GAG.
- Bone regeneration
- Nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffold
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Pharmaceutical Science