Non-invertible watermarking methods for MPEG encoded audio

Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Two watermarking methods that will embed the watermark directly into the PEG audio bit streams are introduced. One scheme embeds the watermark into the Scale Factors of the MPEG audio streams and another embeds the watermark into the MPEG encoded samples. Experimental results are given to show that both methods perform well and the distortion could be controlled at the minimal level. The proposed schemes also show potential use in resolving rightful ownership watermarked MPEG audio.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-202
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1999 Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents - San Jose, CA, USA
Duration: Jan 25 1999Jan 27 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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