Non-equilibrium origin of high electrical conductivity in gallium zinc oxide thin films

Andriy Zakutayev, Nicola H. Perry, Thomas O. Mason, David S. Ginley, Stephan Lany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Non-equilibrium state defines physical properties of materials in many technologies, including architectural, metallic, and semiconducting amorphous glasses. In contrast, crystalline electronic and energy materials, such as transparent conductive oxides (TCO), are conventionally thought to be in equilibrium. Here, we demonstrate that high electrical conductivity of crystalline Ga-doped ZnO TCO thin films occurs by virtue of metastable state of their defects. These results imply that such defect metastability may be important in other functional oxides. This finding emphasizes the need to understand and control non-equilibrium states of materials, in particular, their metastable defects, for the design of novel functional materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number232106
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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