Portable near-infrared spectrometer in the spectral range of 900–1700 nm was evaluated for the first time to assess and monitor apple hardness in real-time during ultrasonic drying. Calibration models were developed using PLS and ANN, and their performances were evaluated by internal leave-one-out cross-validation and an external dataset. Several pre-treatments including standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Savitzky–Golay first and second derivatives were employed to examine the effects of spectral variations in hardness prediction. Seven important wavelengths were selected using weighted regression coefficients to develop a simple MLR model to facilitate the model interpretation and circumvent noise. The models using PLS, MLR, and ANN with selected wavelengths predicted the apple hardness with R2p of 0.91, 0.91, 0.95, and RMSEP of 14.78, 14.85, and 12.46 N, respectively. The results indicate that portable NIR spectrometers are quite promising for real-time monitoring of apple hardness during ultrasonic drying.
- Artificial neural network
- Multivariate analysis
- Near-infrared spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics