Nitrogen provisioned and recycled by cover crops in monoculture and mixture across two organic farms

Ashley A. Holmes, Ashley A. Thompson, Sarah T. Lovell, Maria B. Villamil, Anthony C. Yannarell, Jeffrey O. Dawson, Sam E. Wortman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cover crops can supply and recycle soil nitrogen (N) in agroecosystems. With increasing interest in cover crop mixtures, farmers have questions about how N cycling is affected by individual species when planted alone or in mixtures. Field trials were conducted on two organic vegetable farms during the spring and summer of 2014–2016 to quantify biomass tissue N provisioned, soil nitrate (NO3-N) scavenged, and soil NO3-N mineralized from 12 species of cover crops (six spring and six summer species) planted in monoculture or five-way mixtures. All cover crops were compared to weedy and weeded (no cover crops or weeds) controls. Cover crops provisioned 28–33% more biomass tissue N than fallow weeds. Among spring cover crops, field pea produced the most biomass tissue N (131 ± 13 kg N ha−1; mean ± 1 SE) but that benefit disappeared when pea abundance was reduced in mixtures. Soil NO3-N to a depth of 0.2 m was reduced by 50–67% during cover crop and weed growth, regardless of treatment. Soil NO3-N availability approximately 1 month after incorporation of cover crop and weedy residues varied by treatment. Post-incorporation soil NO3-N was 17–19% greater in pea and soybean monocultures compared to mixtures; conversely, soil NO3-N was 17–19% lower following incorporation of buckwheat and sudangrass monocultures compared to mixtures. Results of this study demonstrate that cover crop N recycling services in near-surface soil are largely independent of species or mixture, but N provisioning services require careful management and species selection to ensure maximum biomass tissue N and timely N mineralization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-453
Number of pages13
JournalNutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Volume115
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

cover crop
monoculture
cover crops
farm
farms
nitrogen
soil
peas
biomass
weed
weeds
seed mixtures
Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii
buckwheat
summer
weed control
agricultural ecosystem
soil nitrogen
agroecosystems
fallow

Keywords

  • Cover crops
  • Nitrogen
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Organic farming
  • Soil fertility and productivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

Cite this

Nitrogen provisioned and recycled by cover crops in monoculture and mixture across two organic farms. / Holmes, Ashley A.; Thompson, Ashley A.; Lovell, Sarah T.; Villamil, Maria B.; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Dawson, Jeffrey O.; Wortman, Sam E.

In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 115, No. 3, 01.12.2019, p. 441-453.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Holmes, Ashley A. ; Thompson, Ashley A. ; Lovell, Sarah T. ; Villamil, Maria B. ; Yannarell, Anthony C. ; Dawson, Jeffrey O. ; Wortman, Sam E. / Nitrogen provisioned and recycled by cover crops in monoculture and mixture across two organic farms. In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 2019 ; Vol. 115, No. 3. pp. 441-453.
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AB - Cover crops can supply and recycle soil nitrogen (N) in agroecosystems. With increasing interest in cover crop mixtures, farmers have questions about how N cycling is affected by individual species when planted alone or in mixtures. Field trials were conducted on two organic vegetable farms during the spring and summer of 2014–2016 to quantify biomass tissue N provisioned, soil nitrate (NO3-N) scavenged, and soil NO3-N mineralized from 12 species of cover crops (six spring and six summer species) planted in monoculture or five-way mixtures. All cover crops were compared to weedy and weeded (no cover crops or weeds) controls. Cover crops provisioned 28–33% more biomass tissue N than fallow weeds. Among spring cover crops, field pea produced the most biomass tissue N (131 ± 13 kg N ha−1; mean ± 1 SE) but that benefit disappeared when pea abundance was reduced in mixtures. Soil NO3-N to a depth of 0.2 m was reduced by 50–67% during cover crop and weed growth, regardless of treatment. Soil NO3-N availability approximately 1 month after incorporation of cover crop and weedy residues varied by treatment. Post-incorporation soil NO3-N was 17–19% greater in pea and soybean monocultures compared to mixtures; conversely, soil NO3-N was 17–19% lower following incorporation of buckwheat and sudangrass monocultures compared to mixtures. Results of this study demonstrate that cover crop N recycling services in near-surface soil are largely independent of species or mixture, but N provisioning services require careful management and species selection to ensure maximum biomass tissue N and timely N mineralization.

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