Nitric-oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence at 10 kHz in a seeded flow, a plasma discharge, and a flame

Stephen D. Hammack, Campbell D. Carter, James R. Gord, Tonghun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study demonstrates high-repetition-rate planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of both cold (̃300 K) and hot (̃2400 K) nitric oxide (NO) at a framing rate of 10 kHz. The laser system is composed of a frequency-doubled dye laser pumped by the third harmonic of a 10 kHz Nd:YAG laser to generate continuously pulsed laser radiation at 226 nm for excitation of NO. The laser-induced fluorescence signal is detected using a high-frame rate, intensified CMOS camera, yielding a continuous cinematographic propagation of the NO plume where data acquisition duration is limited only by camera memory. The pulse energy of the beam is ̃20 μJ with a spectral width ̃0.15 cm-1, though energies as high as 40 μJ were generated. Hot NO is generated by passing air through a DC transient-arc plasma torch that dissociates air. The plasma torch is also used to ignite and sustain a CH 4/air premixed flame. Cold NO is imaged from a 1% NO flow (buffered by nitrogen). The estimated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the cold seeded flow and air plasma exceeds 50 with expected NO concentrations of 6000-8000 parts per million (ppm, volume basis). Images show distinct, high-contrast boundaries. The plasma-assisted flame images have an SNR of less than 10 for concentrations reaching 1000 ppm. For many combustion applications, the pulse energy is insufficient for PLIF measurements. However, the equipment and strategies herein could be applied to high-frequency line imaging of NO at concentrations of 10-100 ppm. Generation of 226 nm radiation was also performed using sum-frequency mixing of the 532 nm pumped dye laser and 355 nm Nd:YAG third harmonic but was limited in energy to 14 μJ. Frequency tripling a 532 nm pumped dye laser produced 226 nm radiation at energies comparable to the 355 nm pumping scheme.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8817-8824
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number36
StatePublished - Dec 20 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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