When individual neurons in a circuit contain multiple neuropeptides, these peptides can target different sets of follower neurons. This endows the circuit with a certain degree of flexibility. Here we identified a novel family of peptides, the Aplysia SPTR-Gene Family-Derived peptides (apSPTR-GF-DPs). We demonstrated apSPTR-GF-DPs, particularly apSPTR-GF-DP2, are expressed in the Aplysia CNS using immunohistochemistry and MALDI-TOF MS. Furthermore, apSPTR-GF-DP2 is present in single projection neurons, e.g., in the cerebral-buccal interneuron-12 (CBI-12). Previous studies have demonstrated that CBI-12 contains two other peptides, FCAP/CP2. In addition, CBI-12 and CP2 promote shortening of the protraction phase of motor programs. Here, we demonstrate that FCAP shortens protraction. Moreover, we show that apSPTR-GF-DP2 also shortens protraction. Surprisingly, apSPTR-GF-DP2 does not increase the excitability of retraction interneuron B64. B64 terminates protraction and is modulated by FCAP/CP2 and CBI-12. Instead, we show that apSPTR-GF-DP2 and CBI-12 increase B20 excitability and B20 activity can shorten protraction. Taken together, these data indicate that different CBI-12 peptides target different sets of pattern-generating interneurons to exert similar modulatory actions. These findings provide the first definitive evidence for SPTR-GF's role in modulation of feeding, and a form of molecular degeneracy by multiple peptide cotransmitters in single identified neurons.
- SPTR-Gene Family-Derived peptides
- projection interneuron
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cell Biology