The use of 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expanding across neurosurgical and neurologic specialties. However, few neurosurgical-related implants have been tested for safety at 7 T, limiting its use in patients with cranial fixation, shunt placements, and other implants. Implant safety can be determined via the American Society for Testing Materials International (ASTM) guidelines. To assess the current state of neurosurgical implant safety at 7 T, a systematic search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and citation matching. Studies written in English that included at least one neurosurgical implant and at least one safety outcome were included. Data were extracted for implant studied, implant composition, deflection angle, torque, temperature change, and ASTM guidelines followed. PRISMA reporting guidelines for scoping reviews were followed. Overall, 18 studies consisting of 45 unique implants were included. Implants included cranial fixation devices, aneurysm clips, spinal rods, pedicle screws, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts, deep brain stimulation devices, and electroencephalogram (EEG) caps and electrodes. Cranial fixation devices, deep brain stimulation devices, spinal rods, and pedicle screws are likely 7 T MRI compatible based on outcomes reported. Aneurysm clips and EEG devices had variable safety outcomes. The VP shunts studied lost functionality after 7 T MRI exposure. We identified several implants that are likely compatible with 7 T MRI. Given the growth in 7 T imaging and expansion of the technology, neurosurgical implants should be constructed with the aforementioned considerations. Caution must be taken with all implants, especially aneurysm clips, programmable VP shunts, and EEG recording devices. It is also noteworthy that several implant testing reports did not report following ASTM standards. This scoping review seeks to concisely summarize all neurosurgical-related implants that have been tested for safety in 7 T MRI. Evidence Level: 2. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)661-669
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • 7 T MRI
  • implant
  • neurosurgery
  • safety
  • ultra-high-field imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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