Background: Complete pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcoma metastases provides patients an opportunity for long-term survival and possible cure. Intraoperative localization of preoperatively identified metastases and identification of occult lesions can be challenging. In this trial, we evaluated the efficacy of near-infrared (NIR) intraoperative imaging using second window indocyanine green during metastasectomy to identify known metastases and to detect occult nodules. Methods: Thirty patients with pulmonary nodules suspicious for sarcoma metastases were enrolled in an open-label, feasibility study (NCT02280954). All patients received intravenous indocyanine green (5 mg/kg) 24 hours before metastasectomy. Patients 1 through 10 (cohort 1) underwent metastasectomy via thoracotomy to assess fluorescence patterns of nodules detected by traditional methods (preoperative imaging and intraoperative visualization/bimanual palpation). After confirming reliability within cohort 1, patients 11 through 30 (cohort 2) underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery metastasectomy with NIR imaging. Results: In cohort 1, 14 out of 16 preoperatively identified pulmonary metastases (87.5%) displayed tumor fluorescence. Nonfluorescent metastases were deeper than fluorescent metastases (2.1 cm vs 1.3 cm; P =.03). Five out of 5 metastases identified during thoracotomy displayed fluorescence. NIR imaging identified 3 additional occult lesions in this cohort. In cohort 2, 33 out of 37 known pulmonary metastases (89.1%) displayed fluorescence. Nonfluorescent tumors were deeper than 2.0 cm (P =.007). NIR imaging identified 24 additional occult lesions. Of 24 occult lesions, 21 (87.5%) were confirmed metastases and the remaining 3 nodules were lymphoid aggregates. Conclusions: NIR intraoperative imaging with indocyanine green (5 mg/kg and 24 hours before surgery) localizes known sarcoma pulmonary metastases and identifies otherwise occult lesions. This approach may be a useful intraoperative adjunct to improve metastasectomy.
- intraoperative imaging
- optical imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine