Near-infrared intraoperative imaging for minimally invasive pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcomas

Jarrod D. Predina, Andrew D. Newton, Christopher Corbett, Michael Shin, Lydia Frenzel Sulfyok, Olugbenga T. Okusanya, Edward J. Delikatny, Shuming Nie, Colleen Gaughan, Doraid Jarrar, Taine Pechet, John C. Kucharczuk, Sunil Singhal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Complete pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcoma metastases provides patients an opportunity for long-term survival and possible cure. Intraoperative localization of preoperatively identified metastases and identification of occult lesions can be challenging. In this trial, we evaluated the efficacy of near-infrared (NIR) intraoperative imaging using second window indocyanine green during metastasectomy to identify known metastases and to detect occult nodules. Methods: Thirty patients with pulmonary nodules suspicious for sarcoma metastases were enrolled in an open-label, feasibility study (NCT02280954). All patients received intravenous indocyanine green (5 mg/kg) 24 hours before metastasectomy. Patients 1 through 10 (cohort 1) underwent metastasectomy via thoracotomy to assess fluorescence patterns of nodules detected by traditional methods (preoperative imaging and intraoperative visualization/bimanual palpation). After confirming reliability within cohort 1, patients 11 through 30 (cohort 2) underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery metastasectomy with NIR imaging. Results: In cohort 1, 14 out of 16 preoperatively identified pulmonary metastases (87.5%) displayed tumor fluorescence. Nonfluorescent metastases were deeper than fluorescent metastases (2.1 cm vs 1.3 cm; P =.03). Five out of 5 metastases identified during thoracotomy displayed fluorescence. NIR imaging identified 3 additional occult lesions in this cohort. In cohort 2, 33 out of 37 known pulmonary metastases (89.1%) displayed fluorescence. Nonfluorescent tumors were deeper than 2.0 cm (P =.007). NIR imaging identified 24 additional occult lesions. Of 24 occult lesions, 21 (87.5%) were confirmed metastases and the remaining 3 nodules were lymphoid aggregates. Conclusions: NIR intraoperative imaging with indocyanine green (5 mg/kg and 24 hours before surgery) localizes known sarcoma pulmonary metastases and identifies otherwise occult lesions. This approach may be a useful intraoperative adjunct to improve metastasectomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2061-2069
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019


  • ICG
  • intraoperative imaging
  • metastasectomy
  • optical imaging
  • sarcoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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